Special Font Effects and Character Codes for Online Abstract Submission

Special formats or characters in the Author, Title, Keywords or Abstract boxes require the use of standard HTML codes. Acceptable codes are given below for font effects, symbols, and foreign characters.


If you want your abstract to include the following:

...El Nio weather conditions raised pond temperatures to >35, resulting in decreased populations of Culex tarsalis...

then the text you enter in the abstract form should look like this:

...El Ni&ntilde;o weather conditions raised pond temperatures to &gt;35&deg;, resulting in decreased populations of <i>Culex tarsalis</i>...

Font Effects

The following table provides examples of how to delineate various font effects in your online abstract submission. The columns list the effect, the text code, and an example of each. You may combine multiple codes to achieve a desired effect.


Special Marks and Symbols

The following table lists the codes you will need to use in order to submit special characters within your abstract over the internet. The columns list the description of the character, show the character as you would like it to be displayed and the appropriate code that you would insert within the text of your abstract to represent that character. Each of the font effects listed above may be used in conjunction with these various character codes.
NOTE that all of these codes start with a ampersand & and end on a semicolon ; . If you forget either, it will NOT render correctly.

greater than symbol > &gt;
less than symbol < &lt;
inverted exclamation mark &iexcl;
cent sign &cent;
pound sterling sign &pound;
general currency sign &curren;
yen sign &yen;
broken vertical bar &brvbar;
section sign &sect;
spacing dieresis or umlaut &uml;
copyright sign &copy;
feminine ordinal indicator &ordf;
left (double) angle quote &laquo;
logical not sign &not;
registered trademark sign &reg;
degree sign &deg;
plus-or-minus sign &plusmn;
micro sign &micro;
paragraph sign, pilcrow sign &para;
middle dot, centered dot &middot;
superscript 1 &sup1;
masculine ordinal indicator &ordm;
right (double) angle quote &raquo;
fraction 1/4 &frac14;
fraction 1/2 &frac12;
fraction 3/4 &frac34;
inverted question mark &iquest;

Foreign Characters

For greek letters visible in browsers supporting HTML 4.0, visit this reference page.

capital A grave &Agrave;
capital A acute &Aacute;
capital A circumflex &Acirc;
capital A tilde &Atilde;
capital A dieresis or umlaut &Auml;
capital A ring &Aring;
capital AE ligature &AElig;
capital C cedilla &Ccedil;
capital E grave &Egrave;
capital E acute &Eacute;
capital E circumflex &Ecirc;
capital E dieresis or umlaut &Euml;
capital I grave &Igrave;
capital I acute &Iacute;
capital I circumflex &Icirc;
capital I dieresis or umlaut &Iuml;
capital ETH &ETH;
capital N tilde &Ntilde;
capital O grave &Ograve;
capital O acute &Oacute;
capital O circumflex &Ocirc;
capital O tilde &Otilde;
capital O dieresis or umlaut &Ouml;
multiplication sign &times;
capital O slash &Oslash;
capital U grave &Ugrave;
capital U acute &Uacute;
capital U circumflex &Ucirc;
capital U dieresis or umlaut &Uuml;
capital Y acute &Yacute;
capital THORN &THORN;
small sharp s, sz ligature &szlig;
small a grave &agrave;
small a acute &aacute;
small a circumflex &acirc;
small a tilde &atilde;
small a dieresis or umlaut &auml;
small a ring &aring;
small ae ligature &aelig;
small c cedilla &ccedil;
small e grave &egrave;
small e acute &eacute;
small e circumflex &ecirc;
small e dieresis or umlaut &euml;
small i grave &igrave;
small i acute &iacute;
small i circumflex &icirc;
small i dieresis or umlaut &iuml;
small eth &eth;
small n tilde &ntilde;
small o grave &ograve;
small o acute &oacute;
small o circumflex &ocirc;
small o tilde &otilde;
small o dieresis or umlaut &ouml;
division sign &divide;
small o slash &oslash;
small u grave &ugrave;
small u acute &uacute;
small u circumflex &ucirc;
small u dieresis or umlaut &uuml;
small y acute &yacute;
small thorn &thorn;
small y dieresis or umlaut &yuml;

Special thanks to Alistair Cullum (SICB Electronic Communications Committee) for compiling this list.